Java bridge

MPh is built on top of the Python-to-Java bridge JPype. It is JPype that allows us to look at Comsol’s Programming Manual or its API reference and run the same commands from Python. All credit to the JPype developers for making this possible.

Unfortunately, the Comsol API does not support running more than one client at a time, i.e. within the same Java program. Meanwhile, JPype cannot manage more than one Java virtual machine within the same Python process. If it could, it would be easy to work around Comsol’s limitation. (There is an alternative Java bridge, pyJNIus, which is not limited to one virtual machine, but then fails in another regard: A number of Java methods exposed by Comsol are inexplicably missing from the Python encapsulation.)

Therefore, if several simulations are to be run in parallel, distributed over independent processor cores in an effort to achieve maximum speed-up of a parameter sweep, they have to be started as separate Python subprocesses. Refer to section “Multiple processes” for a demonstration.

Additionally, there are some known, but unresolved issues with JPype’s shutdown of the Java virtual machine. Notably, pressing Ctrl+C to interrupt an ongoing operation will usually crash the Python session. So do not rely on catching KeyboardInterrupt exceptions in application code.

Platform differences

The Comsol API offers two distinct ways to run a simulation session on the local machine. We can either start a “stand-alone” client, which does not require a Comsol server. Or we first start a server and then have a “thin” client connect to it via a loop-back network socket. The first approach is more lightweight and more reliable, as it keeps everything inside the same process. The second approach is slower to start up and relies on the inter-process communication to be robust, but would also work across the network, i.e., for remote sessions where the client runs locally and delegates the heavy lifting to a server running on another machine. If we instantiate the Client class without providing a value for the network port, it will create a stand-alone client. Otherwise it will run as a thin client in client–server mode.

On Linux and macOS, however, the stand-alone mode does not work out of the box. This is due to a limitation of Unix-like operating systems and explained in more detail in GitHub issue #8. On these platforms, if all you did was install MPh, starting the client in stand-alone mode will raise a java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError because required external libraries cannot be found. You would have to add the full paths of certain shared-library folders to an environment variable named LD_LIBRARY_PATH on Linux and DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH on macOS.

For example, for an installation of Comsol 5.6 on Ubuntu Linux, you would add the following lines at the end of the shell configuration file .bashrc.

# Help MPh find Comsol's shared libraries.

On macOS, the root folder is /Applications/COMSOL56/Multiphysics. The folder names depend on the installed Comsol version and will have to be adapted accordingly.

Requiring the environment variable to be set correctly limits the possibility of selecting a specific Comsol version from within MPh, as adding multiple installations to that search path will lead to name collisions. One could work around the issue by wrapping a Python program using MPh in a shell script that sets the environment variable before starting the Python process. That’s effectively what Comsol itself does to launch its GUI on one of these platforms. Or we could have a Python program that sets the environment variable and then runs MPh in a second Python subprocess. Clearly, none of this is ideal. Starting the client should work without any of these detours.

The function mph.start() exists to navigate these platform differences. On Windows, it starts a stand-alone client in order to profit from the better start-up performance. On Linux and macOS, it creates a local session in client–server mode so that no shell configuration is required up front. This behavior is reflected in the configuration option 'session', accessible via mph.option(), which is set to 'platform-dependent' by default. It could also be set to 'stand-alone' or 'client-server' before calling start() in order to override the default behavior.

Performance in client–server mode is noticeably worse in certain scenarios, not just at start-up. If functions access the Java API frequently, such as when navigating the model tree, perhaps even recursively as mph.tree() does, then client–server mode can be slower by a large factor compared to a stand-alone client. Rest assured however that simulation run-times are not affected.

Conversely, setting up stand-alone mode on Linux or macOS is also not a robust solution. Image exports, for example, are known to crash due to some conflict with external libraries. As opposed to Windows, where this works reliably.